Upendra Sir Sociology Notes PDF - Paper 1 and Paper 2

Upendra Sir Sociology Notes PDF - Paper 1 and Paper 2

In this post, you will get Upendra Sir Sociology Notes PDF for UPSC Mains. The notes are printed in high quality and are readily available to download in PDF format. We have covered all the papers - paper 1 and paper 2These sociology notes are very concise and easy to understand. Free download link, review and other details can be found below.

More about Upendra Sir 

  • He is an old and trusted name among the students who are preparing for civil services for Sociology Optional. 
  • He has taken classes for the last 35 years in New Delhi and has a proven record of outstanding results in Civil Services every year.
  • He delivers classroom lecture explaining in detail, the topics of Sociology for UPSC aspirants. The language of teaching English and Hindi mixed. Here is a video from his channel - 


  • Author - Upendra Gaur
  • Subject - Sociology (optional)
  • Format - PDF
  • Edition - Handwritten Notes
  • Language - English

✅Other UPSC Study Materials and Guides - Get Here 

Topics of Upendra Sir Sociology Notes PDF Book

Paper-I – Fundamentals of sociology

Sociology – The Discipline:
(a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
(b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
(c) Sociology and common sense.
Sociology as Science:
(a) Science, scientific method, and critique.
(b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
(c) Positivism and its critique.
(d) Fact value and objectivity.
(e) Non-positivist methodologies.
Research Methods and Analysis:
(a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
(b) Techniques of data collection.
(c ) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability, and validity.
Sociological Thinkers:
(a) Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
(b) Emile Durkheim – Division of labor, social fact, suicide, religion, and society.
(c) Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, the protestant ethic, and the
spirit of capitalism.
(d) Talcott Parsons – Social system, pattern variables.
(e) Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference
(f) Mead – Self and identity.
Stratification and Mobility :
(a) Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty, and deprivation.
(b) Theories of social stratification – Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian
(c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity, and race.
(d) Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources, and causes of mobility.
Works and Economic Life:
(a) Social organization of work in different types of
society – slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society
(b) Formal and informal organization of work.
(c) Labour and society.
Politics and Society:
(a) Sociological theories of power.
(b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
(c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
(d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
Religion and Society:
(a) Sociological theories of religion.
(b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.
Systems of Kinship:
(a) Family, household, marriage.
(b) Types and forms of family.
(c) Lineage and descent.
(d) Patriarchy and the sexual division of labor.
(e) Contemporary trends.
Social Change in Modern Society:
(a) Sociological theories of social change.
(b) Development and dependency.
(c) Agents of social change.
(d) Education and social change.
(e) Science, technology, and social change.

Paper-II – Indian Society: Structure And Change

A. Introducing Indian Society:
(i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :
(a) Indology (G.S. Ghure).
(b) Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).
(c) Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
(a) Social background of Indian nationalism.
(b) Modernization of Indian tradition.
(c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
(d) Social reforms.

B. Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies.
(b) Agrarian social structure— the evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.

(ii) Caste System:
(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
(b) Features of the caste system.
(c) Untouchability-forms and perspectives

(iii) Tribal Communities in India:
(a) Definitional problems.
(b) Geographical spread.
(c) Colonial policies and tribes.
(d) Issues of integration and autonomy.

(iv) Social Classes in India:
(a) Agrarian class structure.
(b) Industrial class structure.
(c) Middle classes in India.

(v) Systems of Kinship in India
(a) Lineage and descent in India.
(b) Types of kinship systems.
(c) Family and marriage in India.
(d) Household dimensions of the family.
(e) Patriarchy, entitlements, and the sexual division of labor.

(vi) Religion and Society :
(a) Religious communities in India.
(b) Problems of religious minorities.

C. Social Changes in India:
(i) Visions of Social Change in India:
(a) Idea of development planning and a mixed economy.
(b) Constitution, law, and social change.
(c) Education and social change.

(ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:
(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
(b) Green revolution and social change.
(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
(d) Problems of rural labor, bondage, migration.

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
(a) Evolution of the modern industry in India
(b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
(c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
(d) Informal sector, child labor.
(e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

(iv) Politics and Society :
(a) Nation, democracy, and citizenship.
(b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
(c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
(d) Secularization.

(v) Social Movements in Modern India :
(a) Peasants and farmers movements
(b) Women’s movement.
(c) Backward classes & Dalit movements.
(d) Environmental movements.
(e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.

(vi) Population Dynamics :
(a) Population size, growth, composition, and distribution.
(b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
(c) Population Policy and family planning.
(d) Emerging issues: aging, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation :
(a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems, and sustainability.
(b) Poverty, deprivation, and inequalities.
(c) Violence against women.
(d) Caste conflicts.
(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.

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Upendra Sir Printed Notes Paper 1 Volume 1 - Get Here
Printed Notes Paper 1 Volume 2 - Get Here

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Upendra Sir Sociology Notes Review

Most of the aspirants found the notes to be easy to understand and concise. The chapters were well divided and print quality was good too. Thousands of students refer their notes and get success in the examinations. Hence we cannot doubt their quality. 


Q: Is Upendra sir notes enough for sociology?

Yes, these notes along with some answer writing practice is enough for sociology. However, attending  a classroom lectures is also recommended. Around 2 months or 60 days is sufficient to cover whole of sociology syllabus

Q: Is Sociology easy to study?

Sociology is an optional subject that requires intensive answer writing practice. Overall, the subject is easy to study and highly scoring as well. Students with humanities background find the subject really easy since they have already studied it in their school curriculum.

Q: Which are the best books for sociology optional for UPSC?

IGNOU books practically cover the entire syllabus of IAS (UPSC CSE) Mains Sociology paper I and II. As a result, applicants can use IGNOU Books and make syllabus-wise notes from IGNOU Books.

Hope these notes help you in the journey of your UPSC preparation. If you have any doubts, please ask in the comments below and do visit Internshipslive for more! Share with your friends.

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